Ocular adverse reactions occurring in 5%-15% of patients treated with loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic suspension (%-%) in clinical studies included abnormal vision/blurring, burning on instillation, chemosis, discharge, dry eyes, epiphora, foreign body sensation, itching, injection, and photophobia. Other ocular adverse reactions occurring in less than 5% of patients include conjunctivitis, corneal abnormalities, eyelid erythema, keratoconjunctivitis, ocular irritation/pain/discomfort, papillae, and uveitis. Some of these events were similar to the underlying ocular disease being studied.
Adrenal C19 steroids, dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA(S)) and androstenedione (A4), play a critical role in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) as they are metabolised to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), via testosterone (T), or via the alternate 5α-dione pathway, bypassing T. Adrenal 11OHA4 metabolism in CRPC is, however, unknown. We present a novel pathway for 11OHA4 metabolism in CRPC leading to the production of 11ketoT (11KT) and novel 5α-reduced C19 steroids - 11OH-5α-androstanedione, 11keto-5α-androstanedione, 11OHDHT and 11ketoDHT (11KDHT). The pathway was validated in the androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP. Androgen receptor (AR) transactivation studies showed that while 11KT and 11OHDHT act as a partial AR agonists, 11KDHT is a full AR agonist exhibiting similar activity to DHT at 1nM. Our data demonstrates that, while 11OHA4 has negligible androgenic activity, its metabolism to 11KT and 11KDHT yields androgenic compounds which may be implicated, together with A4 and DHEA(S), in driving CRPC in the absence of testicular T.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recommended dosing for systemic prednisone, prednisolone, or methylprednisolone in pediatric patients whose asthma is uncontrolled by inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators is 1–2 mg/kg/day in single or divided doses. It is further recommended that short course, or "burst" therapy, be continued until the patient achieves a peak expiratory flow rate of 80% of his or her personal best or until symptoms resolve. This usually requires 3 to 10 days of treatment, although it can take longer. There is no evidence that tapering the dose after improvement will prevent a relapse.